Transform: You found the basic options already, that’s it. There’s no Skew, Warp, Distort, Perspective. Could be added with a script, but I haven’t seen one.
Make sure RotSprite is enabled when you’re doing transforms, that’ll make things less hideous. However, distorting things at low resolutions always “destroys” them, there’s just not enough data to make it work well. Even with RotSprite, you’ll need to do manual clean-up if you do transformations, that’s just the nature of the medium. Photoshop wrecks pixel art upon transformation too.
Glow: Not as easily as in Photoshop, but yes. Duplicate your layer (or draw a new glow shape), put the duplicate behind the original, fill it with your glow colour, blur the heck out of it (there are various blur options in
Edit > FX > Convolution Matrix...).
I believe it’s possible to write your own convolution matrices, so it should be possible to make one that just does glow. Failing that, this could be done by a script.
Unfortunately, Aseprite doesn’t have nondestructive layer effects, so any glow you add cannot be easily modified or disabled later. For that reason, while Aseprite can do glows, I recommend saving adding them until the very end, and possibly doing them in Photoshop or other software.
Edit: There’s also a dedicated Outline FX, if that’s what you use glows in PS for xP